Monthly Archives: June 2014

Wild Horses and the Fossil Challenge: The Wild Horse an Indigenous Species in America

horse chart fossil

“But just in proportion as this process of extermination has acted on an enormous scale, so must the number of intermediate varieties, which have formerly existed, be truly enormous. Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and serious objection which can be urged against the theory. The explanation lies, as I believe, in the extreme imperfection of the geological record.”
― Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species

Within this written material I would like to call attention to something very significant. There is no doubt to many knowledgeable American’s that the elements of good science are on the decline today and ironically from those government agencies responsible for good science. But why is this significant today and for the tomorrows to come?

Opportunities develop the basis for science, then onward to answer significant questions, and at the same time preserve things that are of utmost importance on this planet. As humans we do not really pick and choose these elements – rather hope above all hopes that we observe those oh so correct elements, then take proper action based on sound and proper data, that develops into good decision making – then onward to secure that proper balance that exists within a particular element, and will coexist with a positive development within our universe.

Wild Horses on our Public Lands are just this situation, opportunities to expand our understanding of our planet, and our universe – cohabitation – a Universal Truth. We have missed the opportunity up to this point, as we have accepted very poor, but large amounts of source-references in the matter of Wild Horses up to this point in time.

The management of our Wild Horses and by government agencies demonstrates this negative-occurrence quite readily; whereas, proper decision making cannot be accomplished by bad or manipulated data – and as we observe daily, and bad data (i.e. government agencies at this time politically and monetarily directed) becomes quite costly as well. But we need not digress here, as much as offer enlightenment, a light at the end of the tunnel so to speak (or write).

There’s a lot to learn about Fossil Records

Because of science we have experienced extreme growth on our planet. As we observe the destruction of our environment today, developed from bad/manipulated-science, it consistently overwhelms the truth — We have a lot to learn yet in the matter of science, and especially our Fossil Records that remain abundant on this planet.
The recent history of a fossil-find, a Brown Bear in Alberta, Canada, explains my point quite well. As a Paleontologist remarks, “. . . this fossil-find illustrates significant implications of the serendipity of paleontology.”

Oddly, this also represents the problems associated with Wild Horse’s as being found indigenous in the Americas. Often research is overlooked, that would re-define the present history of the horse. Embarrassing to many people associated with science and research, the fact is many government personnel either find the true fossil records insignificant (motivated by unethical means most often); yet others find it difficult to combat, with true facts in hand, with such entities as the Department of the Interior and their false science paradigms toward management.

This government agency, in reality, defines its scientific goals within a political and even monetary representation of corporations in America. Within their paradigm, the truth means nothing, and corporate ideology means everything to them. The destruction of America remains on this unethical road to hell, as fossil records often become set-asides, ignored, and have even been known to wind up in dumpsters — then to the local garbage dump; disgusting behavior by government agencies indeed.

So we go further within our example here, which defines the not so attractive attitude above, but with a bit more empathy toward the problem. Fossils of Brown Bears were not known, for example, from below the extent of the ice sheets prior to 13,000 years ago and all bears south of the glaciers were genetically distinct from those north in Beringia. Where did they come from? The newly discovered fossil turned out to be over 26,000 years old – twice as old as previous discovered fossil bears – yet genetically similar to them.

“No fossil is buried with its birth certificate. That, and the scarcity of fossils, means that it is effectively impossible to link fossils into chains of cause and effect in any valid way… To take a line of fossils and claim that they represent a lineage is not a scientific hypothesis that can be tested, but an assertion that carries the same validity as a bedtime story—amusing, perhaps even instructive, but not scientific.” ― Henry Gee, In Search of Deep Time: Beyond the Fossil Record to a New History of Life

What in truth is used in recording and establishing history, thereof, if the consistency of fossils located, and the attributes found within each dig – thus assimilated into a whole, or a graphic entity that becomes self-explanatory. There exists no explanation, or argument – if you will – from a government agency that references the continuity of fossil finds, rather just the opposite, and dictates the horse being non-indigenous due to one or two records of fossil finds. This remains inconclusive as a referenced situation, by our government employees, and knowledgeable people frown on such reference being given such importance or priority.

Within a previous article I highlighted the fact that bears and horses were often found in the areas where wooly mammoths were discovered (due to eating habits, et al.), even up to and including the year 1650. Now we discover Bears have similar problems within the fossil records, as do the Wild Horses – neglect?

“It’s always been a mystery why Brown Bears (i.e. the fossil discovery mentioned above) did not migrate farther south if they were in Beringia as early as 100,000 years ago, and the passage wasn’t blocked until about 23,000 years ago,” stated Paul Matheus, paleontologist at the Alaska Quaternary Center.

Although there was an implicit explanation that a population of bears with this distinct genetic identity had extended their range southward much earlier than could be demonstrated within the fossil record presently, there was a complete lack of any fossil records for a period spanning possibly 80,000 years.

Indeed, the fossil records for most animals are unavoidably spotty. With the Wild Horses in the Americas in mind, we can then go to what Bob Martin has to say — a paleoprimateologist, “. . . estimated at the time there were over 235 known species of living primates, and that 474 extinct species of primate had been described in scientific literature.”

Assuming average species duration of approximately 2.5 million years, based upon the number of fossil species known in each stratigraphic interval contrasted with the number known today, Martin estimated that as many as 8,000 to 9,000 extinct primary species have yet to be discovered in the fossil record. Yes, Wild Horses in the Americas remains one of these “to be discovered” finds.

“Our calculations,” concluded Martin, “indicate we have fossil evidence for only about 5% of all extinct primates, so it is as if paleontologists have been trying to reconstruct a 1,000 piece jig-saw puzzle using just 50 pieces.”

Wild Horses and Fossil Records

Interesting, how facts when combined with honesty, that truth does become unavoidable. Conclusively, science does not function without the entire data base of reality being present and acknowledged as such — just as a television or a washing machine does not work unless plugged-in.

When we explore the fossil records within a matter “not” of perspective, as that can be manipulated, but rather within the context of “learning” and of “knowledge” by the actual facts presented. Only then can we conclude an entirely different history of Horse’s in America; and the contradictions to what is available currently, does exist. This establishes, very well I might add, the Wild Horses and coincidently horses being indigenous in America.

Unfortunately, and the major problem, is the fact this knowledge, the fossil records, contradicts the government agencies who represent corporations only and on America’s Public Lands.

The Wild Horses for some contrary reasoning, then combined with ignorant reasoning, contradicts current government management paradigms as well. Yes, a criminal government takes a lot of things way from us in America (to include the non-essential and frivolous spending of taxpayer money), and it is time to fight back.

When perusing further the fossil records of the horse in the Americas, for example, and attritional history of horse bones (similar to Bear’s bones, et al.) being found on many archeological digs, we then discover more of the Indigenous nature of the horse being well established in the Americas; thereby, the Wild Horse can and should, by all technical as well as ethical reasoning, become listed as an Endangered Species in America.


Posted by on June 29, 2014 in Uncategorized


America’s Indigenous Wild Horse’s: Good Science Will Save Them

chumash horse pre-dating mexico and spainish horses by 2 centuries

History is a cyclic poem written by Time upon the memories of man. ~ Percy Bysshe Shelley

In this article we develop a consensus toward establishing Wild Horses’ as indigenous in America. The truth is that science and good investigative research gives us this factual, and often overlooked information already. Oddly, it is developed from attritional information at archeological dig-sites. It is found within research papers and technical reports, in this case, from woolly mammoth dig-sites up and down the Pacific Coast and somewhat inland.
“However, not all mammoths were woolly tundra-dwellers; in North America, mammoth remains have been found at elevations ranging from sea level to the mountains of the Colorado Plateau, and from Canada to central Mexico. The largest of these, the Columbian mammoth, dwelled in savannas and grasslands like African elephants today, and the smallest—Pygmy Mammoths—lived on the isolated Channel Islands off the California coast.” Gill, Jacquelyn, Scientific America

Found commonly at these archeological dig-sites are wild horse bones, and found in abundance and in accord with many technical reports on this subject matter (inclusive). This is due in part to their similar eating and grazing habits during those times. The problem is the woolly mammoth story is much more interesting and publishable, especially within the pecking-order world of research and archeological discoveries; therefore, the highlights are directly on the woolly mammoth, wild horse bones overlooked in total.

The positive attribute here is the fact we can easily place time-factors on horse bones found at many dig-sites of other mammals as well – and within the documentation of the attritional artifacts. So we can develop an even more accurate time line, by going from one extinct animal to another, then find more information when carbon-dating bones of currently existent animals, with the overlooked horse bones beside them.

Not just animal dig-sites but archeological digs of ancient buildings or townships become of interest to us for the same goal. And as above, these factors when combined, establish a definite wild horse presence in America throughout history, and the more interesting aspect, continuously.

A Walk into the Past

There exist variables, through reasonable explanation, essential evidence to the indigenous nature of wild horses in America. Unfortunately, many articles involved in explaining wild horse history, especially time-line factors, simply repeat the narrow scope of rhetoric presumed as the only historical facts available.

Often these articles attest to research, but indeed are not researched what so ever, simply plagiarized material, and as a safety-net for many writers would have it – repeated information only. Most writer’s simply repeat the somewhat snobbish appeal of the European influence on Archeological finds, specifically about horses, existing nowhere else on our planet but within their European landscape – which, according to them, provided the availability of the wild horse in the America’s (i.e. other rhetorical reasons exist as well, but not mentioned here).

But what we find when perusing scientific research, the facts become overwhelming — evidence that directly opposes the European-only origination of the wild horse. These facts, by this writer’s perspective, creates many questions left unanswered to this day, regarding the matter of the real history of the wild horse and its indigenous nature on the American Continent (this article does not delve into American Indian petroglyphs, carvings, etc…).

Something not to be overlooked, ever — When there become more questions than available answers, that tells us, definably, there exists many things that have been overlooked or neglected within the specific subject and reference materials.

So we can explore such animals as the woolly mammoths, which lived in opened grassland biomes similar to the horse. Bones of wild horses also found within many archeological sites and right beside the woolly mammoth.

Not so ironic the above facts remain a controversy to this day. And yet the controversy not of the horse bones, rather it surrounds the fact of extinction of the woolly mammoth – ironically, no one mentions how the horse survived on this continent for centuries, even though horse bones appear at so many archeological dig-sites, abundantly so – remains one of many more questionable aspect of archeology and subjects to be debated within the science community in the future.

The Question Is?

Yes, controversy in regard to archeological digs, theories, and subject matter are not headline news. So when we see an article, in this case on wild horses and their indigenous nature questioned or stated firmly non-existent, but does not mention the controversy within the science community on the subject (e.g. many archeologist’ believe the indigenous nature of wild horses does exist quite readily in America), then we can assume a grave error committed in fact-collection and research – simply by “things overlooked in their research on the subject” – and then we, as the general public, become victims once again, of incompetence and misleading information.

As outlined within this article, “Wooly mammoth mass accumulation next to the Paleolithic Yana RHS site, Arctic Siberia: its geology, age, and relation to past human activity — Abstract — In 2001, the Yana RHS archaeological site was discovered in the lower Yana river valley, Arctic Siberia. Its radiocarbon age is about 28 000 BP. While enormous amount of Pleistocene mammal bones was excavated from the site, the mammoth bones occurred at an unexpectedly low frequency . . . That was interpreted as an indication of the limited role of mammoths in the subsistence economy of the Pleistocene Yana people. In 2008, next to the excavation local ivory miners opened a mass accumulation of mammoth accompanied by the artifacts. About one thousand mammoth bones from at least 26 individuals, and few wooly rhinoceros, bison, horse, reindeer, and bear bones have been unearthed there. Stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating provide evidence for cultural layer of Yana RHS and the mass accumulation of mammoth to be coeval.”

The truism often overlooked, that at these sites where they discover woolly mammoth bones, they also find horse bones, as stated by many archeologist’s, almost always . . . note how it was simply glossed-over as an insignificant yet attritional development that substantiates the woolly mammoth presence, and the other animals simply incremental details.

This occasion is consistent among many scientific and technical reports and journals. Many times the horse bones, as well as other animal bones and as mentioned previously, are in truth set aside information, although mentioned in the report on the mammoth; and just as often only mentioned in reference of proximity only – this, ironically, often overlooked by those who research the history of the horse, and disregard the timeline that the situation can and does establish, and very well I might add.

But this also establishes the fact of horses coming over the Land Bridge into the America’s, way back when. Then we go to the West Coast of the America’s, the Channel Islands off of the California Coast, and we find further information associated with woolly mammoth digs.

In the West we find bones of the pygmy woolly mammoth – “Summarizing the available radiocarbon chronology of the Channel Island Mammoths, it appears they have been on the islands, in pygmy form, essentially unchanged, for more than 47,000 years (beyond the limits of radiocarbon chronology). It also appears that they may have survived until the early Holocene colonization of the islands by the ancestors of the ancient Chumash people, first recorded between 10,800 and 11,300 years ago,” (i.e. Channel Islands (USA) pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) compared and contrasted with M. columbi, their continental ancestral stock).

The Woolly Mammoth and the Wild Horse

Whether the general mammoth population died out for climatic reasons or due to overhunting by humans is controversial (controversy discussed in “DNA Shifts Timeline For Mammoths’ Exit” and other science reports).

The fact is the wild horse and the mammoth had similar appetites’, grasses, et al. . . A small population survived on St. Paul Island, Alaska, up until 3750 BC, and the small mammoths of Wrangle Island survived until 1650 BC. Recent research of sediments in Alaska indicates wooly mammoths (i.e. wild horse bones found there as well) survived on the American mainland, but the dates remain controversial – the fact wild horse bones found at these sites simply ignored, as once again the abrupt arrogance of subject matter, more plausible and certain to be published in science journals when highlighting the wooly mammoth rather than the wild horse bones . . .

“Causes of late Quaternary extinctions of large mammals (“megafauna”) continue to be debated, especially for continental losses, because spatial and temporal patterns of extinction are poorly known. Accurate latest appearance dates (LADs) for such taxa are critical for interpreting the process of extinction. The extinction of woolly mammoth and horse in northwestern North America is currently placed at 15,000–13,000 calendar years before present (yr BP), based on LADs from dating surveys of macrofossils (bones and teeth). . . “ (i.e. “Ancient DNA reveals late survival of mammoth and horse in interior Alaska” ).”

Conclusion or The Beginning

So once again the definitive-history is not that at all, but remains controversial. Perhaps the point of this article, when perusing these facts as well, and on your own, you will find several “theories” in regard to the history of the wild horse.

“Theory” remains the key word here, because within the science community, new discoveries and better methodology in establishing time-frames and establishing historical elements of our past develop new perspectives of our past quite often. Only then are new theories developed, then perhaps accepted or not. . . what an odd way to develop history . . .

The history of America’s wild horses’ fall quite nicely within this categorical demise of the old rhetoric, in order to replace the misinformation with the not so much new information at all — but with perseverance to actually study the overall consistent information that already exists within technical and archeological reports, but oh so often overlooked – after all, nobody wants to make waves within our society of today – OR DO WE? It’s past time to do so!


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Posted by on June 27, 2014 in Uncategorized