Evolution is such an under-estimated value, and within our systematic processes of today, blatantly ignored, more often than not, due to politics or just ignorance based upon bias or profits; which, our extinction inevitable, as the environment is distinctly too complex for our bias-opinionated wildlife management ideologies and actions — John Cox, Cascade Mountains
Article by – John Cox, Independent Wild Horse Advocate
All wildlife run across hazards within wilderness areas. Predation in the wilderness is common, survivability, and those who awake ready to either obtain prey or are the prey, then best be ready for action either way. But, this is all limited, as evolutionary process conclusive, and survival skills are developed in all wildlife, and terrestrial vegetation as well, to survive beyond all else.
Similar to human’s in heavily populated cities, and even in small towns, as we see or hear about traffic accidents, auto-train accidents, train wrecks, airplane and airline accidents, car accidents, multi-pileups on local freeways, accidental and purposeful shootings, crimes where people are killed, and on it goes, survivability for human’s, as well, remains precarious in total – same things although different environment. Survival skills required. Things happen. We try to mitigate the accidents or causation consciously, similar to the way wildlife, both predator and prey, assimilate their day.
We do not need to add to their hazards, as we do very ignorantly, to make things more difficult, for example — the PZP-GONACON darting situation accomplishes nothing, and takes away the Survival Mind-Set of Skills Wild Horses do have, and require, on our Public Lands to survive. The current loss of Wild Horse band-families, over the past decade, and we see the very ignorant, all-inclusive of other situations as well, that indeed does affect them directly. . . Their survivability complex we used to see, through observation and tracking of spore definitively, no longer exists in many Wild Horses. Within the family Wild Horse bands, as corrupt government agencies as well as corrupted non-profits make the situation far worse than ignorance and bias has shown – all inclusive, we see it and it is quite evident.
When we speak of extremely ignorant and bias wildlife management today, it is primarily because We See the Effects of it Directly – on the flats, the range, the mountains, the deserts, essentially, all of the Public Lands in the Western 11 States. Because humans might understand the superficial proximity of a belief toward wildlife management, does not make it a reality, but typically, it becomes adverse toward any healthy ecology, inclusive of wildlife as well. Yet, people will quote the oddly adversity a paradigm exhibits toward wildlife or wilderness areas, as if it should be a decision made about using it – Here, I say no, more knowledge needed, obviously, and the management paradigms require cohesiveness and provide evolution, i.e. room for positive growth standards, rather than dissension within any Eco-system.
Weather, especially, can be lethal within wilderness areas; or, one of the most common situations toward injury or death of wildlife, other than humans. Droughts are lethal, but manageable by the wild horses and within their survival skills, as we see quite often when observing them (we observe 82 Bands across the 11 western states – and see no one out there of any value doing the same) that is, as long as they are left alone, and pesticides are not darted into them – among other incompetent ignorance and behaviors toward management ideologies . . .
It is only human’s that do not understand these skill sets in Wild Horses, that assume Wild Horses may die from droughts and dehydration; although, what we have seen, while observing them, is the fact Wild Horses can, and do, locate water quite well, and within many different environments, e.g. range-lands, mountains, desert flats, valley basins, et al. PZP and other experimental situations take-away this capacity of outright survival skills Wild Horses do have – and I think this bares repeating, as it is a very serious problem, and was created as well as further promoted, as something useful (only in the ignorant human mind does that develop what so ever – reality shows us it has no value at all) – IT IS NOT AT ALL!
These survival “skills” from Pleistocene-era days. Many of us agree in total, the wild horses never lost – what so ever, and shows us there was entirely NO Interruption in Evolutionary growth, all inclusive of the America’s as well. . . and we see it on our Public Lands and within Our Wild Horses —
We see very well, humans did not complete a total kill-off of the wild horses, as we have been led to believe. There is nothing of note in either Pre-Historical times, nor historical and recorded history times, to show a kill-off occurred, legitimately. The opinions, of such, that exist are not, nor ever have been, of any science what so ever = conjecture only, which is proven, constantly, in error. There is no evidence from these opinions that supports a kill-off; rather, it has always been surmised, mostly due to logistics or a sight-unseen belief that the wild horses killed-off among many other large predator’s and grazing animals alike – as the Pygmy Mammoth was assumed such, as well, and currently they are being found, within many archeological sites, to be plentiful within the Western portion of the United States.
After all, no one has seen them, as the opinions go and without evidence at all. The Pygmy Mammoth found quite by accident, on the Channel Islands in California (the beginning of many more extravagant finds within the 11 Western United States = Evidence of Grazers not only survived, but abundant in the America’s after the supposed and only opinionated Plasticine Kill Off. This inclusive of horses as well –
Can Wildlife survive human bias and ignorance?
What we do find is the wilderness areas where the horses roam, to be almost non-habitable by human’s or industry for that matter; or, human’s simply so sparse, and communication skills within early human’s so limited, that communication from pre-historic times almost zero. We see it is almost zero today, as well as we see confrontation between country people and city people today, as a good example of situations that lack understanding or communication. This withdrawal from both circumstances, and we see incompetent and mismanaged wildlife, while in the field, consistently and constantly.
So, what is the point of this conversation? The fact that Wild Horses know how to survive, whether predators around or not – or, whether humans around or not. We can be definitive here, and state clearly, nether written history nor communication between humans existed, post Plasticine Era . . . Today, many people surprised when we start to discuss pre-European Invasion history, in the America’s . . . so there is no surprise at all that any written dialogue would tell us about wild horses or their existence at all – other than cave drawings, et al, or tribal oral historians.
Wild Horses and Mountain Lions?
North American wild horses, yes, in the America’s and throughout the Pleistocene Era, evolved in the presence of abundant, large, and fierce carnivores, including the extreme Sabre-tooth Tiger, cheetahs, and short-faced bears, which all, as the archeological files and data collected show us, helped to keep the many huge, hungry herbivores (mammoths, mastodons, giant ground sloths) in check. Not so much the smaller herbivores, or grazers like the Pygmy Mammoth, or the Horses, as they were smaller, and much faster. The Kill-Off from the Plasticine did not develop for the mid-range mammals at all, nor the mid-range predators, as many more archeological digs show us. It was primarily the slower movers or larger targets that were killed-off, and the Ice-Age was not as significant as many thought, either, as data from many digs currently show us as well – and how the mid-range mammals’ spread throughout the all-inclusive, America’s.
North America’s surviving apex predators are large-bodied carnivores who occupy the highest trophic level. When abundant enough to be ecologically effective, these keystone species help to regulate prey populations and thus maintain native habitats and the diversity of other native species. Conversely, scientists have discovered that the loss of apex mammalian predators can precipitate ecological chain reactions that lead to profound habitat degradation and species loss.
Mountain lions or Cougars, pumas, and panthers, are very important Apex Predators and widely distributed throughout the American West—although their range, like that of the other native large carnivores, was greatly reduced by population growth and the realty – suburbs extending into wildlife habitats. Cougars do not commonly prey on free-ranging horses and burros in North America, primarily because they are heavily hunted themselves. There is evidence Cougar population can potentially limit wild horses through the predation of foals. What we find in the field (and no we do not see these people tat talk a lot about the Cougar, and on and on, in the field at all) is the facts or Reality, once again, and the predation of foals causation is the incompetent management of current wildlife paradigms, and birth controls used in wilderness areas, that are actually irrelevant and cause more harm than good. Government agencies assigned to Predation Control in wilderness areas, in combination with the very bias and ignorant PZP use, for example, leaves little to no “critters” for the Apex Predators – inclusive of Cougar, Bear, Coyotes, Wolves, et al., that we seem to forget it is their Living Habitat.
In the Montgomery Pass Wild Horse Territory on the California/Nevada border, there has been essentially no lion hunting for the past 30 years. This region serves as a unique refuge for both wild horses and cougars. As such, it appears that the Territory’s un-hunted lion population hovers around what we might arguably call an ecologically effective level and significantly contributes to the control of the wild horse population.
Studies have shown that ecologically effective populations of apex predators limit population irruptions of both native and introduced species and can provide better outcomes than lethal management (here we see again within science, with the ignorance and bias movement of PZP or experimentation of wild horses on our Public Lands is okay – when it is unethical, disruptive within all of Nature’s natural Moderation of Population science, and violates the WH&B ACT of 1971 precisely); Therefore, the preservation or recovery of large predators—which, like wild horses, require extensive refugia, or protected-areas where experimentation or any human attributes, remain unacceptable as a management resolution or manipulation. . . This presents a significant conservation need for maintaining the resiliency of wild-land ecosystems, especially in the face of a rapidly changing climate. According to a 2015 paper published by Adrian Wallach and colleagues in Oikos:
“. . . The recovery of apex predators offers an alternative response to introduced species that can simultaneously reduce the harm they cause, reduce the harm society feels compelled to cause them, and capitalize on their values. This approach is not without its challenges: society remains apprehensive towards both large predators and non-native organisms and both are subjected to eradication efforts. Never the less, considering rapid environmental change, some species will need to move to survive, and resident ecosystems will need large predators in order to adapt. Overall, to achieve better outcomes for the biodiversity we will have to transition our efforts away from killing introduced species and towards promoting ecological mechanisms that enable coexistence.”
As we have seen, many of us, within the Montgomery Pass Wild Horse Territory, wild horses eventually learned to avoid the high, rugged terrain optimal for Cougar predation, preferring the open lowlands where cougars were less effective. Once again, we see the evolutionary adaptation of the wild horses (their survival skills PZP-GONACON, and other experimentation will definitively take-away from them, which obviously equates to total-ignorance at its worst!), the horses figured out how to evade mountain lions. As scientists noted, the clever horses will now “require more active management to assure habitat well-being.”
By active management, they mean continued horse round-ups and contraceptive measures. I would argue that there is another, albeit contentious, option necessary for the resolution of wild horse management. Even though, an in-your-face evolutionary process is taking place, those who are inept, for profits mostly, want active-management control there – Yes, one cannot make this type of ignorance and bias up, and certainly misuse of our taxpayer money – and an abundant ignorance toward how wildlife and their ability to adapt, takes place. So we are confronted with an evolutionary process, yet our government states clearly, the wild horses did not evolve at all in the America’s – and yet here we are looking at the very evolutionary process unfold, and out government denies it – yet another argument “FOR” BLM-DOI-Forestry interference toward wildlife be discontinued – they are not managing our lands for wildlife, but primarily for themselves and industry!
We then move on toward a more diverse paradigm, necessary to establish Re-Growth of our Public Lands that have already been decimated by ignorance and bias. . . Mountain lions in the Great Basin would not be able to limit wild horse populations to a sustainable level on their own. Some researchers suggest that reestablishing a more complete suite of native carnivores through the reintroduction of gray wolves, in concert with supporting a naturally evolving mountain lion population, would provide the basis for an ecologically and economically sound, long-term solution. This approach would not only help stabilize wild horse populations, but would also greatly contribute to restoring native grasslands, woodlands, and forests.
But not just moderation of population develop, but also alongside; whereas, circumstances of Survival Skills increase . . . as we have seen develop in other areas (yet government ignores these evolution’s we are seeing on the range and in the mountains’ quite ignorantly) and within a notable diversity increase, at least for the past decade, where government agency interruptions are the least – yes – our Natural Resources, when left along, as well as wildlife, adapt quite nicely to Trophical Cascade paradigms’, as well as generating healthier ecology habitats – We see it, very well I might add, and when government interference the least.
Frankly I appeal toward a management-paradigm of a Hands-Off Wildlife as well as Our Nation’s Natural Resources’, while it develops and prosper, and through Diversity of wildlife and territorial vegetation. Clearly, it is a situation of many have their opinions, often totally ignorant and bias formed, but none the less for the uninitiated and those that sit behind the desk and do their research there, is a similar problem.
We have too may examples of situations where ignorance and bias prevail, in our wildlife and terrestrial habitats still today, yet ignored. And within a parallel situation, we also have may situations that were left alone, and a Natural Moderation of Populations not only evolved, but Species integration evolved (a complex of survivability evolved, that we cannot neglect, as we are involved In this chain of events also — our existence on this planet — Evolution Mandatory otherwise existence ceases to become active in the environment) into Moderation of Populations as well as much healthier habitats and formed growth, or expansion, within the same healthy evolutionary expansion – terrestrial – oceanic – wildlife evolution complex chain. The Trophical Cascade Effect works – we see it, whether manipulated or not – it works, and works well. . .
Berger J. 1986. Wild horses of the Great Basin: social competition and population size. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press.
Beschta RL, Donahue DL, DellaSala DA, Rhodes JJ, Karr JR, O’Brien MH, Fleischner TL, Deacon Williams C. 2013. Adapting to climate change on western public lands: addressing the ecological effects of domestic, wild, and feral ungulates. Environ Manage. 51:474–491.
Dedecker M. 1991. Shrubs and flowering plants. In: Hall Jr. CA, editor. California natural history guides. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press.
Eberhardt LE, Hanson WC, Bengtson JL, Garrott RA, Hanson EE. 1982. Arctic fox home range characteristics in an oil development area. J Wildl Manage. 46:183–190.
Feist JD, McCullough DR. 1976. Behavior patterns and communication in feral horses. Z Tierpsychol. 41:337–371.
Fjelline DP, Mansfield TM. 1989. Method to standardize the procedure for measuring mountain lion tracks. In: Shaw H, editor. Third mountain lion workshop. Phoenix (AZ): The Wildlife Society and Arizona Game and Fish Department.
Garrott RA, Taylor L. 1990. Dynamics of a feral horse population in Montana. J Wildl Manage. 54:603–611.
Holechek J, Pieper RD, Herbel CH. 2004. Range mangement, principles and practice. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall.
Honda T. 2009. Environmental factors affecting the distribution of the wild boar, sika deer, Asiatic black bear and Japanese macaque in central Japan, with implications for human-wildlife conflict. Mamm Study. 34:107–116.
Jessup D, Clark W. 1986. Wildlife restraint handbook. Rancho Cordova (CA): Wildlife Investigation Laboratory.
Jones and Stokes Associates, Inc. 1999. Effects on Mule Deer Movement and Mortality along State Rte. 395 in Mono County. (JSA 92-013). Sacremento (CA): Jones and Stokes Associates, Inc.
Mennick P. 1979. A study of the Truman Meadows and White Mountain wild horse populations of California and Nevada [M.S. Thesis]. Santa Cruz (CA): University of California.
Morton ML, Morrison ML, Hall LS, Pereyra ME. 1995. Life history parameters in mice exposed to a prolonged drought. Southwestern Nat. 40:18–28.
Powell DR, Klieforth HE. 1991. Weather and climate of the White-Inyo range, eastern California. In: Hall Jr. CA, editor. California natural history guides. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press; p. 3–26.
Ransom JI, Roelle JE, Cade BS, Coates-Markle L, Kane AJ. 2011. Foaling rates in feral horses treated with the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida. Wildl Soc Bull. 35:343–352.
Smallwood KS, Fitzhugh EL. 1993. A rigorous technique for identifying individual mountain lions Felis concolor by their tracks. Biol Cons. 65:51–59.
Spira TP. 1991. Natural history of the White-Inyo range, eastern California. In: Hall Jr. CA, editor. California natural history guides. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press; p. 77–86.
Taylor TJ. 1988. Migration and seasonal habitats of the Caso Diablo deer herd. Bishop (CA): California Department of Fish and Game.
Waring GH. 1983. Horse behavior: behavioral traits and adaptations of domestic and wild horses, including ponies. Park Ridge (NJ): Noyes Publication.
Wolfe ML, Ellis LC, MacMullen R. 1989. Reproductive rates of feral horses and burros. J Wildl Manage. 53:916–924.
Zar JH. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice-Hall.
Graeme R. Gillespie, Yusuke Fukuda, Peter McDonald, Using non-systematically collected data to evaluate the conservation status of elusive species: a case study on Australia’s Oenpelli python, Wildlife Research, 10.1071/WR19112, 47, 2, (146), (2020).
Ruchira Somaweera, James Nifong, Adam Rosenblatt, Mathew L. Brien, Xander Combrink, Ruth M. Elsey, Gordon Grigg, William E. Magnusson, Frank J. Mazzotti, Ashley Pearcy, Steven G. Platt, Matthew H. Shirley, Marisa Tellez, Jan Ploeg, Grahame Webb, Rom Whitaker, Bruce L. Webber, The ecological importance of crocodylians: towards evidence‐based justification for their conservation, Biological Reviews, 10.1111/brv.12594, 95, 4, (936-959), (2020).
Brett W. Molony, Damian P. Thomson, Managing the super-shark: Recommendations to improve communication and debate about chondrichthyans, Marine Policy, 10.1016/j.marpol.2020.103983, 118, (103983), (2020).
Pedro Monterroso, Francisco Díaz‐Ruiz, Paul M. Lukacs, Paulo C. Alves, Pablo Ferreras, Ecological traits and the spatial structure of competitive coexistence among carnivores, Ecology, 10.1002/ecy.3059, 101, 8, (2020).
Marcos Moleón, José A. Sánchez-Zapata, José A. Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne M. Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry B. Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José L. Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja C. Jähnig, Matt W. Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García, Anthony D. Barnosky, Klement Tockner, Rethinking megafauna, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 10.1098/rspb.2019.2643, 287, 1922, (20192643), (2020).
Juliano André Bogoni, Carlos A. Peres, Katia M.P.M.B. Ferraz, Effects of mammal defaunation on natural ecosystem services and human well being throughout the entire Neotropical realm, Ecosystem Services, 10.1016/j.ecoser.2020.101173, 45, (101173), (2020).
Shrutarshi Paul, Debanjan Sarkar, Abhilash Patil, Tista Ghosh, Gautam Talukdar, Mukesh Kumar, Bilal Habib, Parag Nigam, Dhananjai Mohan, Bivash Pandav, Samrat Mondol, Assessment of endemic northern swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii duvaucelii) distribution and identification of priority conservation areas through modeling and field surveys across north India, Global Ecology and Conservation, 10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01263, (e01263), (2020).
Gabriella R. M. Leighton, Jacqueline M. Bishop, M. Justin O’Riain, Joleen Broadfield, Justin Meröndun, Graham Avery, D. Margaret Avery, Laurel E. K. Serieys, An integrated dietary assessment increases feeding event detection in an urban carnivore, Urban Ecosystems, 10.1007/s11252-020-00946-y, (2020).
Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto, Pedro Viana Gatts, Vanessa Trindade Bittar, Investigating food assimilation in a carnivorous teleost by stable isotopes analysis: the case of ribbonfish off south-east Brazil, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 10.1017/S0025315420000338, (1-7), (2020).
Francisco Díaz-Ruiz, Alejandro Rodríguez, Diego Procopio, Sonia Zapata, Juan Ignacio Zanón-Martínez, Alejandro Travaini, Inferring Species Interactions from Long-Term Monitoring Programs: Carnivores in a Protected Area from Southern Patagonia, Diversity, 10.3390/d12090319, 12, 9, (319), (2020).
A. Szolnoki, B. F. de Oliveira, D. Bazeia, Pattern formations driven by cyclic interactions: A brief review of recent developments, EPL (Europhysics Letters), 10.1209/0295-5075/131/68001, 131, 6, (68001), (2020).
M. Drouilly, N. Nattrass, M. J. O’Riain, Global positioning system location clusters vs. scats: comparing dietary estimates to determine mesopredator diet in a conflict framework, Journal of Zoology, 10.1111/jzo.12737, 310, 2, (83-94), (2019).
Nicholas Carter, Raylene Cooke, John G. White, Desley Whisson, Bronwyn Isaac, Nick Bradsworth, Joining the dots: How does an apex predator move through an urbanizing landscape?, Global Ecology and Conservation, 10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00532, (e00532), (2019).
Tamlyn M. Engelbrecht, Alison A. Kock, M. Justin O’Riain, Running scared: when predators become prey, Ecosphere, 10.1002/ecs2.2531, 10, 1, (2019).
Kenneth A. Logan, Puma population limitation and regulation: What matters in puma management?, The Journal of Wildlife Management, 10.1002/jwmg.21753, 83, 8, (1652-1666), (2019).
Eric Lucas, Julie-Éléonore Maisonhaute, Intraguild Predation, Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, 10.1016/B978-0-12-809633-8.90118-3, (389-399), (2019).
Juliano André Bogoni, Pedro Giovâni da Silva, Carlos A. Peres, Co‐declining mammal–dung beetle faunas throughout the Atlantic Forest biome of South America, Ecography, 10.1111/ecog.04670, 42, 11, (1803-1818), (2019).
Gail Morris, L. Mike Conner, Mesocarnivores affect hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) body mass, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/s41598-019-51168-y, 9, 1, (2019).
Mohammad S. Farhadinia, Brett T. McClintock, Paul J. Johnson, Pouyan Behnoud, Kaveh Hobeali, Peyman Moghadas, Luke T. B. Hunter, David W. Macdonald, A paradox of local abundance amidst regional rarity: the value of montane refugia for Persian leopard conservation, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/s41598-019-50605-2, 9, 1, (2019).
Shanta C. Barley, Timothy D. Clark, Jessica J. Meeuwig, Ecological redundancy between coral reef sharks and predatory teleosts, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 10.1007/s11160-019-09588-6, (2019).
E Hance Ellington, Stanley D Gehrt, Behavioral responses by an apex predator to urbanization, Behavioral Ecology, 10.1093/beheco/arz019, (2019).
Joshua H. Schmidt, Judy Putera, Tammy L. Wilson, Direct and indirect effects of temperature and prey abundance on bald eagle reproductive dynamics, Oecologia, 10.1007/s00442-019-04578-8, (2019).
Ruchira Somaweera, Mathew L. Brien, Steven G. Platt, Charlie Manolis, Bruce L. Webber, Direct and indirect interactions with vegetation shape crocodylian ecology at multiple scales, Freshwater Biology, 10.1111/fwb.13221, 64, 2, (257-268), (2018).
Hila Shamoon, Shlomo Cain, Uri Shanas, Avi Bar-Massada, Yariv Malihi, Idan Shapira, Spatio-temporal activity patterns of mammals in an agro-ecological mosaic with seasonal recreation activities, European Journal of Wildlife Research, 10.1007/s10344-018-1196-8, 64, 3, (2018).
Robynne Kotze, Mark Keith, Christiaan W Winterbach, Hanlie E K Winterbach, Jason P Marshal, The influence of social and environmental factors on organization of African lion (Panthera leo) prides in the Okavango Delta, Journal of Mammalogy, 10.1093/jmammal/gyy076, 99, 4, (845-858), (2018).
Juliana Masseloux, Clinton W. Epps, Adam Duarte, Donelle Schwalm, Mary Wykstra, Using Detection/Non-Detection Surveys and Interviews to Assess Carnivore Site Use in Kenya, African Journal of Wildlife Research, 10.3957/056.048.013006, 48, 1, (013006), (2018).
L. Mark Elbroch, Lucile Marescot, Howard Quigley, Derek Craighead, Heiko U. Wittmer, Multiple anthropogenic interventions drive puma survival following wolf recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Ecology and Evolution, 10.1002/ece3.4264, 8, 14, (7236-7245), (2018).
Juliana Strieder Philippsen, Carolina V. Minte-Vera, Marta Coll, Ronaldo Angelini, Assessing fishing impacts in a tropical reservoir through an ecosystem modeling approach, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 10.1007/s11160-018-9539-9, (2018).
L. Mark Elbroch, Anna Kusler, Are pumas subordinate carnivores, and does it matter?, PeerJ, 10.7717/peerj.4293, 6, (e4293), (2018).
Mario Quevedo, Jorge Echegaray, Alberto Fernández-Gil, Jennifer A. Leonard, Javier Naves, Andrés Ordiz, Eloy Revilla, Carles Vilà, Lethal management may hinder population recovery in Iberian wolves, Biodiversity and Conservation, 10.1007/s10531-018-1668-x, (2018).
Tomohiro Harano, Nobuyuki Kutsukake, The evolution of male infanticide in relation to sexual selection in mammalian carnivores, Evolutionary Ecology, 10.1007/s10682-017-9925-0, 32, 1, (1-8), (2017).
Amanda J. Meadows, David W. Crowder, William E. Snyder, Are wolves just wasps with teeth? What invertebrates can teach us about mammal top predators, Food Webs, 10.1016/j.fooweb.2016.09.004, 12, (40-48), (2017).
L. Mark Elbroch, Connor O’Malley, Michelle Peziol, Howard B. Quigley, Vertebrate diversity benefiting from carrion provided by pumas and other subordinate, apex felids, Biological Conservation, 10.1016/j.biocon.2017.08.026, 215, (123-131), (2017).
C. A. Souza-Filho, D. Bazeia, J. G. G. S. Ramos, Apex predator and the cyclic competition in a rock-paper-scissors game of three species, Physical Review E, 10.1103/PhysRevE.95.062411, 95, 6, (2017).
Arian D. Wallach, Daniel Ramp, Adam J. O’Neill, Cattle mortality on a predator-friendly station in central Australia, Journal of Mammalogy, 10.1093/jmammal/gyw156, 98, 1, (45-52), (2017).
Literature Cited, Ecological Restoration and Management of Longleaf Pine Forests, 10.1201/9781315152141, (349-420), (2017).
Nick Bradsworth, John G. White, Bronwyn Isaac, Raylene Cooke, Species distribution models derived from citizen science data predict the fine scale movements of owls in an urbanizing landscape, Biological Conservation, 10.1016/j.biocon.2017.06.039, 213, (27-35), (2017).
Bradley P. Smith, Teghan A. Lucas, Rachel M. Norris, Maciej Henneberg, Brain size/body weight in the dingo (Canis dingo): comparisons with domestic and wild canids, Australian Journal of Zoology, 10.1071/ZO17040, 65, 5, (292), (2017).
Arian D. Wallach, Anthony H. Dekker, Miguel Lurgi, Jose M. Montoya, Damien A. Fordham, Euan G. Ritchie, Trophic cascades in 3D: network analysis reveals how apex predators structure ecosystems, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 10.1111/2041-210X.12663, 8, 1, (135-142), (2016).
Arielle Waldstein Parsons, Christina Bland, Tavis Forrester, Megan C. Baker-Whatton, Stephanie G. Schuttler, William J. McShea, Robert Costello, Roland Kays, The ecological impact of humans and dogs on wildlife in protected areas in eastern North America, Biological Conservation, 10.1016/j.biocon.2016.09.001, 203, (75-88), (2016).
William J. Ripple, Guillaume Chapron, José Vicente López-Bao, Sarah M. Durant, David W. Macdonald, Peter A. Lindsey, Elizabeth L. Bennett, Robert L. Beschta, Jeremy T. Bruskotter, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Richard T. Corlett, Chris T. Darimont, Amy J. Dickman, Rodolfo Dirzo, Holly T. Dublin, James A. Estes, Kristoffer T. Everatt, Mauro Galetti, Varun R. Goswami, Matt W. Hayward, Simon Hedges, Michael Hoffmann, Luke T. B. Hunter, Graham I. H. Kerley, Mike Letnic, Taal Levi, Fiona Maisels, John C. Morrison, Michael Paul Nelson, Thomas M. Newsome, Luke Painter, Robert M. Pringle, Christopher J. Sandom, John Terborgh, Adrian Treves, Blaire Van Valkenburgh, John A. Vucetich, Aaron J. Wirsing, Arian D. Wallach, Christopher Wolf, Rosie Woodroffe, Hillary Young, Li Zhang, Saving the World’s Terrestrial Megafauna, BioScience, 10.1093/biosci/biw092, 66, 10, (807-812), (2016).
TCR White, Self-regulation, a persisting misinterpretation of the workings of biology, New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 10.1080/03014223.2016.1205635, 43, 4, (384-387), (2016).
Chris N. Johnson, Arian D. Wallach, The virtuous circle: predator‐friendly farming and ecological restoration in Australia, Restoration Ecology, 10.1111/rec.12396, 24, 6, (821-826), (2016).
Miriam L. L. Perilli, Fernando Lima, Flávio H. G. Rodrigues, Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti, Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil, PLOS ONE, 10.1371/journal.pone.0151814, 11, 3, (e0151814), (2016).
Arian D. Wallach, William J. Ripple, Scott P. Carroll, Novel trophic cascades: apex predators enable coexistence, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 10.1016/j.tree.2015.01.003, 30, 3, (146-153), (2015).