Monthly Archives: February 2019

Indigenous Wild Horses in America — Yet More Links to the Truth

“The notion that nothing else is left to find, or discover, in archeology and paleontology research, is and remains ridiculous.  What we do have are challenges, daily, at locating and cataloging finds, and disseminating this information to the general public; which, requires them to understand the aspect that history does change, and is in continuous “motion of change” due to 80% of our history is yet to be found, then confirmed.”  — Anonymous Paleontologist

Interesting to us as horse people, we find those who tracked the spread of European Language, can be, ironically also noted for finding, somewhat, the beginning history of the “domesticated Horse”. Until recently, those descendants of goat and sheep herders who formed the Yamnaya culture in the steppes of today’s Ukraine and western Russia about 5,000 years ago, were thought to have domesticated the horse. . .

This information led us down the road of confusion in the actual matters of Horse History. It is believed they rode the subdued animal, as they spread southeast, which also brought the Indo-European group of languages to Anatolia (a vast region mostly in today’s Turkey), which is not of our concern here as much as the horse, and horses existing and domesticated before this situation.  Theories arose from this, and too many questions developed that required answers.

As archeology changes our world with new discoveries and bone piles/civilization finds, among other research and discoveries due to new findings, the landscape remains in a constant flux of “finds” and history updates.  Theories based upon “finds” develops, and in this case scenario we find a completely different type of nomad, and a different horse link. This particular nomad tribe, a smaller group named the Botai, who about 500 years earlier east of the Yamnaya, in Kazakhstan – in reality, domesticated the horse before the Yamnaya.  With further insight, we can correlate this news with previous “finds” and understand we may be looking at the relationship of these recently discovered horses to our wild horses of today — even though, this situation sparks questions left unanswered, we can lace-together previous discoveries and to actually understand how all of these links fit together.

What is neglected in this particular “find” is that the horses were wild, before being domesticated; thereby, the theory of wild horses non-existent today is simply in error, and no longer credible. — and at that time, as other dissociated evidence from other “finds” in the Americas, lends new credibility to the horse existing there after the Plesticine Era (as we find more bones from the Plesticine Era horses in Washington, Oregon, and Utah), and the pieces of the puzzle of horse history start to come together, better than before, and with more details.

As things do happen in research and archeological digs, when one door opens many more open as well, we discover genetic analyses of the Botai led to startling conclusions about the origin of today’s horses. History changes again.  The “Old Guard” sneering and shaking in their boots of conservative mind-sets, once again grow uncomfortable at the younger upstarts, or those who do change our history, and with evidence to back it up entirely.

The Eurasian steppe is a vast grassland stretching 8,000 kilometers (about 5,000 miles), from Hungary and Ukraine in the west through Kazakhstan to Mongolia and China in the east, and into Siberia (and just what we needed to know — confirmed — a missing link). The Botai lived in what is now Kazakhstan, from about 5,700 years to 5,100 years ago.

It is among the Botai that archaeologists located the oldest evidence of horse domestication (found so far, at least): Pottery with traces of mares’ milk, and horse teeth that seem worn down by bits.  No evidence existed at this find as to where the horses come from, rounded up from where, then to domesticate; thereby, according to them, the horses just showed-up and ready to be ridden– and thereby, the problem of horse history done by non-horse people — as they did not just show up and were domesticated.  Now we begin to understand the principle of why theories exist — and when based upon evidence, we can also postulate these theories very accurately — and define them accordingly.

Wild horses Genetics and DNA

Genetic analysis of Botai horse-remains, and what was thought to be the only surviving wild horse – the so-called wild Przewalksis – by the French National Center for Scientific Research and Université Toulouse III–Paul Sabatier, resulted in some unexpected findings.

  1. Unexpected finding is that the “only wild horse still existing,” the wild Przewalski, is not actually wild. It can be theoretically sound, and descended from the Botai horses, which many suppose were wild, or is it a separate horse entirely? more info needed here;


  1. Unexpected finding is that the Botai did not domesticate the Przewalski, but did domesticate some other unknown wild horse (linguistics and language their specialty and not horses). This unknown animal could be the forefather of the Przewalksi, but for now separate, so their un-knowledgable theory goes, based on their lack of previous history of horses — we see it often, and is simply not that unusual;


  1. Unexpected finding is that none of today’s horses are descended from the Przewalksi, but from the Botai descendants, and confirmation links exist, through Siberia, Alaska, British Columbia, and the America’s;


  1. Final unexpected conclusion is that the horse was domesticated not once but twice. That’s according to the molecular biologist from the Natural History Museum in Denmark. . .

Significant Questions Remain

Maybe the Botai did give the Yamnaya the idea of how to train horses. But to be clear, the Botai were not ancestral to, or even related to, the more western Yamnaya, reported the researchers.  This is where knowledge of horses, their survival skills in wilderness, and their capacity to be rounded up and domesticated come in — and more questions develop here as well, in the matters of where the wild horses came from . . .

It is speculative, but likely that when the two groups, or tribes, did encounter each other, they fought.

Hostility with the Botai explains why, when the Yamnaya-related groups meandered eastward, they didn’t strike roots mid-route, but continued all the way to the Altai Mountains of Southern Siberia – thousands of kilometers in distance. There, these pastoralists who came from eastern Europe became the forefathers of the culture called the Afanasievo.

This far-flung wandering by the Yamnaya fits with Russian literature, which indicates that Botai descendants were warring with them. Why would they clash? “Probably because the descendants of the Botai people didn’t like their hunting territory being overrun,” as one researcher speculates.

As for the Botai themselves, following their Bronze Age existence, their homeland central steppe was totally overrun by groups coming in with wheeled-vehicles, horse drawn and ox-drawn carts — horses once again, we find, already domesticated, but more different blood-lines?  Working horses developed?. Indeed, to get away from the incoming population of people, the descendants of the Botai hunter-gatherers retreated into the forest-steppe, with their horses.  Did they develop another lineage of horses?  Not so impossible, when Waring tribes of people gather other tribes horses, when winning the battles.  Perhaps the missing X-Gene so often discussed when found in blood-samples or DNA complex dynamics, but no one ever examines the possibilities of discovery, or at least admit it was discovered, yet. . .

Nomadic Skills Improve – Hunters use of Horses Evident

These relocated Botai may even have been considered the highly nomadic forest groups of Siberia (thereby, the confirmed Horse Connection and into the America’s), who left a pattern of burials from Finland to Mongolia from about 2100 B.C.E. to 1900 B.C.E. (known as the Seima-Turbino phenomenon).

For our interests, this shows us the Botai tamed horses before the Yamnaya. But it seems that, wherever they rode their horses, neither of these groups went south to Anatolia, which Indo-European languages began to arise there, and from this period onward has nothing to do with the trail of the horse.

The non-existent trail southward, but rather eastward and into Siberia, the actual trail for the horses through Siberia then southward, confirms not only evidence and further information horses existed in the America’s, but also confirms several hypothesis theories in the matters of horses actually existed in the America’s during the Plasticine Era and afterward (bone piles show us this without a doubt to be true) and quite frankly, the horse never was, or never did go, extinct. . .

Interesting that the Genetic analysis of 74 human skeletons shows that the Yamnaya and Botai weren’t even related: The Botai arose from a hunter-gatherer population “deeply diverged” from the Yamnaya, the researchers say. This also confirms several theories in regard to the hunter-gatherer’s advanced survival skills and necessity of tracking and catching up with wildlife, rather than just running down wildlife on foot – as success in kills evident in many bone piles in the Northwest show — in what is now known as Alaska, as well as down to the America’s, that horses used in hunting gathering to be consistent with other wildlife bones in B.C. and in the Pacific Northwest.

The Botai Domesticated horses did survive and became wild Przewalksis – as the hunt for clues in the genetic records continues.  And the questions in the matters of the Botai people, and rode their horses into Siberia, would fit, in total compliance, to all theories and bone piles located from Siberia to Alaska, then down into the Americas, as a per-existing community of horse-bones show us. . . This reaffirms the more elaborate horse bone finds in British Columbia, and those into Washington State and within the area of the Oregon Ice Caves, among others.

We are not, by any means what so ever, done with accumulation of facts and evidence of our history, as the pre-European Invasion history shows us quite well.  The history and evolution of the horse is no different, and never has been actually — A matter of perception?  No doubt, and corrected on a continuous basis, whether the human species accepts it or not . . ..

To ridicule or even develop a pre-tense that all has been found, and all is definitive, toward one mind-set and in opposition to another, is pure clap-trap and unsupportable, as well. . . The Human-Problem exists, and remains alive and well, with notable problems of perceptions becoming more true than truth itself, and especially with our history, and with, at times, what we even did yesterday.  But one thing is for sure, and make no doubt, the link to our Horse History is complete, and they never died off, as there is no supporting evidence of such, in America — the fact is, because there exist missing bones, which is not evidence, that just means those bone-piles or remnants have, very simply, not been found yet — The Truth is Out there, and exists, whether any of us agree with that or not.

Article Research and Written by John Cox, Cascades



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Posted by on February 25, 2019 in Uncategorized


Wild Horses and Bureau of Land Management – Organized Crime?

“It’s pretty much a joke how the entire horse program is handled,” says Dale Tunnell, Special Agent in charge of the BLM’s division of Law Enforcement in Santa Fe. “They’ll run one herd into another management area and say it’s overpopulated. Then they’ll take a certain number of horses off the land. The cattle ranchers have a significant say on how those ranges are managed. The managers will do anything to keep those ranchers off their hind ends. The whole purpose is to remove wild horses from the public lands. If they could decimate the herds to where they could die out and become extinct, it would make the politicians and the bureaucrats extremely happy.” Horses to Slaughter, 1993 Investigation

Let’s go back in time.  On December 15, 1971 Congress passed the WH&B Act of 1971.  This was a “unanimous” situation, and as many Senators and Congressmen alike, explained, it was “. . . the will of the people.”  Yes, saving America’s Wild Horses (Equus caballus) and Burros (E. asius) on Our Public Lands, and against ranchers, government tyranny, and ignorant and bias mind-sets – and from going to slaughter or rendering.

The Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act (Public Law 92-195 – The Law) described these animals as “fast-disappearing symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the west” and indeed, cowboys are nothing without their horse – and it is the horse, not cowboys, that are the legend – Ironically, right now we have anybody with a cowboy hat, and even pretend to have one, talk about horses – although, many of us see through their contemptful “garbage in – garbage out” mind sets.

America Spoke – Congress listened (how unique), and for very significant reasons.  The Wild Horses on our Public and Federal Land needed protection from scammers, liars, screamers and ranters, corporations, and yes, even non-profits at that time.  Interesting here, as we start to see and understand the “corrupt nature” of our Federal government’s corrupt “Grazing Permit Program”, is that everyone wants their share of taxpayer money, or else.

Both the Bureau of Land Management (i.e. BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (i.e. USFS), as the law shows us, are responsible for administrating this exact Law – Need we remind these government agencies and their employees, America built on this foundation of Law – of responsibility and when Laws Broken, those who do so taken to task – and this Law specifies as to how the wild horses and burros are to be managed. . .

(of particular note: those that told people the U.S. Forest Service (i.e. MODOC Roundup) is not applicable, those people lied to you, corrupt people in corrupt times, who pose as knowledgeable Horse Advocates, and frankly the USFS have always been, by law, within the confines of the WH&B Act of 1971.)

Now, here is where the Act mentioned above gets interesting.  “. . .designed to achieve and maintain “thriving” natural ecological-balance on public lands (Federal lands within this comment was understood).  The current and ongoing management paradigm, unstated, from BLM Range Managers and those in the WH&B Program, assume a status of Single-Species Priority = Cattle, and ignores in total the WH&B Act of 1971 – which is illegal, and also biologically irresponsible and denotes corruption in total.

An Informant (from an Investigation in the early 1990’s)

BLM Agent interviews an Informant on the subject of stealing horses from the BLM Wild Horse Herd Roundups:

“. . . Agent:  Is this a pretty good organization?  This sounds like something that’s pretty well planned out, it’s a big organization.

Informant:  Well, its very well set up, you know.  There’s nobody that participates in it that isn’t well known and don’t know what’s going on.

Agent:  Do you feel like there’s people inside the BLM that know about this practice, that are a part of this practice?

Informant:  Sure.  We can’t operate unless they’re standing there. . .” Investigation, Horses to Slaughter

Misinformation Lies and Incompetent Counts

Here is where things become even more interesting, especially for Horse Advocates, and simply the facts alone show us “No Need” for breed controls what so ever – rather, there is an extraordinary need for the government legal entities, the Checks and Balance System of Justice, to take over and re-establish this very corrupt government agency, and directly manage the Wild Horses by the Laws already in place and within the WH&B Act of 1971.

So, let’s jump forward, to 1993.  The act required that BLM maintain an inventory of Wild horses and Burros on America’s Federal / Public (i.e. FP Lands) Lands.  Every 3 years a census, and keep this term in mind, as recommended by the National Academy of Sciences (i.e. NAS remains nothing more than government researchers — more special interest corruption, keep this in mind as well) was to be accomplished.

The WH&B Board met every few years, and it is only within the recent decade that they started meeting every few months (see $$$$ waste of taxpayer money), which is “not” defined, nor by regulatory measure, meant to do so, as found within the WH&B Act of 1971.  It has become nothing more than a cash-cow for the people on the board; nor, does this WH&B Board abide by the WH&B Act of 1971, which it was formed to assure the taxpayer’s the BLM / Forestry did abide by the Federal Laws (i.e. Public Law 92-195).

Flawed Wild Horse Counts and Misinformation

In 1993 we find the Wild Horse population to be, as BLM states, 46,500 — although even then we see very telling erroneous figures, and the necessity for Stallions and foals to give birth to more foals, as with the mares of all ages (the BLM employees have always been a joke, so to speak, and yet, extremely corrupt and quite obvious, which brings about many more questions about government integrity, government Law Enforcement, and Laws in general). . . quite clearly, I might add. . . they simply lie – nobody can truthfully be that bad at simple arithmetic. . . and nobody this dumb to assume the average taxpayer in America would consider these “Biologically Impossible Birth Rates” to exist – or do they?

It was also explained, within all documentation back then, that there exists a 15% error margin for the Wild Horse counts, and a 25% margin error on Burros.  We also found no averaging, nor even attempts at considering “Birth Rate versus Death Rate” within their calculation of “census”, nor over the next few decades of doing the actual census / counts.  So, we have very definitive questions, and certainly questions toward the credibility of these “census” figures at that time; and also now, for the matter of credibility, and for the similar reasoning of quantifiable-information and data, that would even come close to an accurate Wild Horse or Burro count.

And here is where we start running across the very questionable history of these supposed “Census” considerations toward the Wild Horse and Burro counts – as we use the term loosely here, as there exists no one, and I mean no research scientists nor accountants, nor statistician’s that will agree, within the slightest, that these counts are any type of “reality” what so ever; thereby, BLM employees only, and their credibility, over decades, simply unavailable and unbelievable – they lie and lie a lot.

Then we go to the 5% to 25% increase of Wild Horses and Burros yearly, so they say.  And within the same paragraph, yes this is how ridiculous this is, they make the statement “. . . depending on the range and environmental conditions, with 15% being a long-term average.  At this rate, the population of wild horses may double every 5 years.”  One cannot make this up, and one also wonders about the qualification on becoming a BLM employee – Nepotism?  Same Church group?  Who knows?  But that is the subject of yet another article, as well.

Wild Horse Population – Guess work and more guess work

Rather than myself ascertain what was said, I will take it off of a report – “. . . may be managed only on lands that existed on December 15, 1971 . . ., (unspecific — so to state they had particular HMA’s assigned is “garbage in – garbage out”, and simply does not exist within the WH&B Act of 1971, unless placed into a copy of it and left unratified) “. . . was estimated at 17,000 animals” (not horses or burros, but their term = animals???)“. . . however, at that time no formal inventory policies or procedures existed to conduct appropriate census populations. . .”

Within this particular discussion we can also look at the laws, “If you file a document that you know contains false, erroneous, or fictitious information or statements, you may be subject to criminal penalties under 18 U.S.C. 1001 and 43 U.S.C. 1212. The maximum penalty is 5 years in prison and/or a fine of $250,000.” From their BLM Legal Handbook –

One can also assume “Organized Crime” taking place – they know the Laws and actually breaking these Laws daily!  But ironically, rather than subdue this paradigm of corruption, BLM employees and administrators very adamant in attempts at conducting a continuous stream of lies, misinformation, and confusing issues – is this purposeful, or just attrition?  Quite obvious they could care less, as they go to court, they lose most often, and yet never change to abide by the Federal Judge Rulings, and very well documented as such – and where are the legislators, or legal entities to keep them in check?

BLM Forestry non-sense and evidence

After questioning many Oregonians, Washingtonian’s, and those in Nevada and Wyoming, we find no one, not one person, would back up these initial figures, or BLM figures from 1993 – and the truth?  In all conversations, neutral people and living at that time as adults, in their minds the counts being way too many horses within the BLM counts, and considered false information, even back then.

So we have, at that time, Wild Horse and Burros “occupying”, a term untrue and very misleading — as if 17,000 horses would “occupy” 43 million acres or in reality simply be .00039535 of one horse per acres ––

The Universal Truth within Biology is birth-rates in the wilds, or as simple science shows us (yes, science always in the way of BLM and Forestry wild horse management situations) moderation of population in the wilds within healthy Ecological Zones does exist – ignored by BLM and Forestry, and devastation of our grasslands and our forests, does exist, but ignored for Special Interests, Pay-offs to District Supervisors and Range Managers alike – and on and on the corruption goes – honesty and ethics simply does not exist within these government agencies – their ethics and morals definitive of taking the Low-Road in life, Corrupt people making a lot of money off the tragedy and backs of America’s Wild Horses –

Breaking up this 43 million acres into each state — in Arizona 4 million acres, in California 6 million+ acres, in Colorado 800,000+ acres, in Idaho 450,000+, in Montana 55,000 acres, in Nevada 19 million acres, in New Mexico 150,000 acres, in Oregon 4 million acres, in Utah 2.5 million acres, and in Wyoming nearly 6 million acres.  Keep in mind 17,000 horses on this entire spread of land – yes, again, this ridiculous and their use of terms to make the wild horses appear as more, i.e. “herds “rather than “bands”, “costly to taxpayers”, or the myths of being destructive or eating everything on our public lands = 43,000,000 million acres – as if millions upon millions of cattle do nothing, and remain harmless –

Yes, BLM and the Forestry very condescending, and their information is more assimilated toward talking-down to the very Taxpayer’s that pay taxes, that pays them – the Reality?  They work for us – their lies extremely childish in many ways, and their outright disrespect toward taxpayers and American’s alike, shown within how they treat America’s Wild horses!  Time for Change within these very Corrupt government organizations!


The growth in the Grazing Permit Budget, at the time escalated 10-fold, where at one time a mere few thousand dollars existed in the Range Land Management Budget and Grazing Permit Program, escalated to $-millions immediately, once ranchers and special interests started to populate the Administrative branches of the BLM and Forestry; whereas, at the beginning, no subsidies — to very little – existed, or went to the Welfare Ranchers holding Grazing Permits; then, escalated to several thousands of dollars, to those who were aware of the government hand-outs, and hardly any per-AUM Unit payment to the BLM or Forestry made at that time – and is still $1.35 per AUM Unit.  Although, these payments simply disappear in the accounting system – with no Procurement Process to assimilate or be held accountable for the money taken into this account, or out. . .

But not only are there many questions here, but the overwhelming bad-attitudes from the government agency employees’ themselves, and toward the taxpayers as well as the wild horses, the growth of the Corruption exponential, dirty-dealings and lies out of proportion and very obvious, and within many other subsidies’, began during this time.

The reality?  The Grazing Permit Program ran-out its usefulness (i.e. to supply beef and lamb product to the Spanish American War, WWI, and WWII, and Korea wars), and was going to be discontinued at that time, as beef was simply plentiful, and taxpayers were also growing tired of funding the Welfare Rancher endeavors, and obtain nothing from them, other than higher taxes.  The discussions within Congress derailed, and the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971 become the item of conversation, and even then, ranchers did not want Wild Horses on what they termed = “Their Lands.”


Posted by on February 23, 2019 in Uncategorized